Ganoderma lucidum is actually a white-rot fungus that has been viewed as a conventional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been said that a number of extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, including Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, and some bioactive elements of ganoderma lucidum spore powder, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although using Ganoderma lucidum as being an elixir has existed for thousands of years, studies uncovering its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg.
Besides which, the types of extractions or components being comfrimed to become anti-aging are far too few compared with the larger amounts of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to lay the floor for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect along with its clinical application.
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst is actually a basidiomycete white rot fungus often called “Ling Zhi” in China, “Rei Shi” in Japan and “Youngzhi” in Korea. The pharmacological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was attested by “Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic” as early as 100 BC, and observed to advertise health, increase vigor and vitality as well as prolong lifespan. The original Chinese Taoist viewed Ganoderma lucidum being an herbal medicine that could help people to obtain the “elixir of external youth”. In China, Ganoderma lucidum has long been used as being a folk medicine for improving health and is regarded as the most exalted traditional Chinese medicine.
Analysis of non-volatile ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum indicated that it includes 1.8% ash, 26-28% carbohydrate, 3-5% fat, 59% fiber and 7-8% protein. The key active constituents, including polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptidoglycans, are located in the fruit body, mycelium and spore. Beseids which, there are various extractions of Coriolus Versicolor Extract as a result of specific extracting procedures used during production and the part of plant it gets from. Regarding to the anti-aging and related functions of Ganoderma lucidum, the primary Ganoderma lucidum extractions are ethanol extract, aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum and the extract through the mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The bioactive aspects of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related functions meanly includes polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptides.
Aging is nearly always along with a decline in bodily physiological function, resulting in an elevated susceptibility to age-related disorders. It is really an inevitable physiological process, however the underlying mechanisms remain to become elucidated after many decades. One of the numerous theories connected with aging, the oxidative stress and free radical accumulation theories stand out probably the most. The antioxidant system deteriorates as a function of age, bringing about disruption of the delicate balance between radical oxygen species production and elimination ultimately causing oxidative cellular damage. Post-mitotic tissues like the brain, heart and skeleton muscle are definitely more vunerable to aging, compared with other organs.
Importantly, oxidative stress accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are very important inducers of cardiac aging. Cardiac contraction is determined by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and also the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Their dysfunction may increase ROS production for an unhealthy level, thereby giving rise to structural and functional modifications in the myocardium, such as myocardial atrophy or compensatory hypertrophy, which induces cardiac aging . Within the brain, the accumulation of free-radicals and attenuation of respiratory chain enzyme complex activity damage cerebral mitochondria, wherein their dysfunction can induce the start of some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and others.
Besides oxidative stress, aging is also closely connected with bringing about structural and functional defects within the defense mechanisms. Immunological dysfunction could possibly be the cause of the improved susceptibility in the aged population to bacterial and virus infections, which can be commonly seen in older people.
Gradual loss of cognition is among the main characteristics of aging, with manifestation of declining logical thinking, memory and spatial abilities. Cerebral aging is the main reason behind cognitive deficits and could be induced by neurodegeneration . While, on the contrary, age-associated cognitive deficits tend not to mean neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, since aging brain applies a sensitive microenvironment to induce worse damage than uushdq caused by diseases. The demise of neurons caused by the activation of cell death programs is involved in the procedure for age-related neurodegeneration.
Although Ganoderma lucidum has been used as being an elixir for centuries, studies revealing its anti-aging effect and lifespan extension are merely the tip of the iceberg. Whether Tribulus Terrestris Extract exerts an anti-aging effect remains a mystery. Therefore, this review aims to lay the floor for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect to advertise its clinical application as being an anti-aging herbal medicine.
Anti-aging and anti-aging related outcomes of Ganoderma lucidum extractions
The extractions of Ganoderma lucidum with direct lifespan elongation effects or potential anti-aging properties mainly includes the Ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL), Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA), Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extract, Water soluble extract in the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK) and Ganodermasides A, B, C and D. These extracts are taken from various areas of Ganoderma lucidum.